Synthesis of JWH-018 and 1-Pentylindole: Microwave Techniques and Pyrolysis Insights

Comprehensive Guide to JWH-018: Synthesis, Properties, and More

Introduction

JWH-018 is a synthetic cannabinoid compound that gained notoriety for its psychoactive effects, which mimic those of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component in cannabis. Developed by John W. Huffman in the 1990s for research purposes, JWH-018 has been a subject of interest due to its potential medicinal properties and recreational use. This introduction provides a brief overview of JWH-018 and its significance in the context of synthetic cannabinoids.

Reaction Scheme:

Pic 1

Equipment and Glassware:

  • 50 L Batch reactor equipped with a drip funnel, top stirrer, thermometer, temperature control system (cooling), and reflux condenser.
  • 10 L Flask
  • Retort stand and clamp for securing apparatus (optional)
  • Reflux condenser
  • Top stirrer
  • Heating plate
  • Funnel
  • Several 25 L buckets
  • Beaker 2000 mL
  • Pyrex dishes
  • Vacuum source
  • Scale
  • Measuring cylinder 1000 mL
  • Glass rod and spatula
  • Scoops
  • Nutsche filter
  • Rotary evaporator

Pic 2

Reagents:

  • Indole 1000 g, cas: 120-72-9
  • Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) 15 liters, cas: 75-09-2
  • Tin (IV) chloride 2000 ml, cas: 7646-78-8
  • 1-Naphthoyl chloride 1627 g, cas: 879-18-5
  • Nitromethane 10 L, cas: 75-52-5
  • Ethyl acetate 15 L, cas: 141-78-6
  • Sodium hydroxide 1300 g, cas: 1310-73-2
  • TBAB 800 g, cas: 1643-19-2
  • 1-Bromopentane 1500 g, cas: 110-53-2
  • Distilled water 20 L
  • Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)

Step 1: Synthesis of 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (cas 109555-87-5) from 1-Naphthoyl chloride and Indole.

Pic 3

  1. In a 50 L batch reactor containing a solution of 1000 g indole in 15 liters of dichloromethane, add 2000 ml of tin (IV) chloride (SnCl4) while stirring continuously. Maintain external cooling using a cold water bath or cooling system.
  2. Allow the reaction mixture to return to room temperature and stir for 30 minutes. Then, slowly add 1627 g of 1-naphthoyl chloride in small portions, followed by 10 L of nitromethane.
  3. Stir the mixture for 2 hours at room temperature.
  4. Quench the reaction mixture with 20 liters of ice water, extract with 15 liters of ethyl acetate, and filter to remove inorganic precipitates using a nutsche filter.
  5. Dry the organic phase over Na2SO4 and MgSO4, filter out solids, and concentrate it at reduced pressure to obtain 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (cas 109555-87-5) as crystals.

Step 2: Synthesis of 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-018) from 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (cas 109555-87-5).

Pic 4

  1. Weigh 2000 g of 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole, 1300 g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and 800 g of TBAB into a 10 L flask.
  2. Add 1500 g of 1-bromopentane and 3000 ml of distilled water to the flask.
  3. Stir the reaction mixture until two layers form and all solid sodium hydroxide dissolves completely.
  4. The mixture will self-heat as sodium hydroxide dissolves, so place the flask on a heating plate and heat with maximum power after the layers separate and all sodium hydroxide is dissolved.
  5. Install a top stirrer on the flask and ensure the solution is stirred well enough for the layers to mix into a homogeneous mixture.
  6. Keep the top stirrer running at a constant power during the reaction.
  7. Simmer the mixture until the reaction solution becomes milky and homogeneous, which takes 15-30 minutes.
  8. Remove the flask from the heating plate when the mixture separates into two layers.
  9. Use the top layer, and allow the product to crystallize directly in the flask, which may make removal challenging, so work quickly.
  10. Carefully pour the top layer into Pyrex dishes or silicone molds.
  11. Let JWH-018 crystallize for 24 hours. Silicone molds are convenient for handling the crystallized JWH-018 product since it takes on the mold's shape.
  12. Retrieve the crystallized JWH-018 product, crush it, and air dry it on paper or a dish in a warm, well-ventilated room. Consider using a vacuum desiccator for faster drying, which depends on the amount of JWH-018 product and typically takes around 48 hours. The reaction yield is 3000 g.
  1. JWH-018 Synthesis Video

    JWH-018 Synthesis Video

    Synthesis of JWH-018 from 3-(1-Naphthoyl)indole. 3-(1-Naphthoyl)indole synthesis from indole. https://bbgate.com/threads/jwh-018-synthesis-video.9134/
  2. William D.

    JWH-018 synthesis

    Reaction scheme: Equipment and glassware: 50 L Batch reactor, which is equipped with drip funnel, top stirrer, thermometer, temperature control system (cooling) and reflux condenser; 10 L Flask; Retort stand and clamp for securing apparatus (optional); Reflux condenser; Top stirrer; Heating...
  3. William D.

    3-(1-Naphthoyl)indole Synthesis

    Reagents: Indole (cas 120-72-9) 1000 g; Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) 15 l; Tin(IV) chloride (SnCl4) 2000 ml; 1-Naphthoyl chloride (cas 879-18-5) 1627 g; Nitromethane (cas 75-52-5) 10 l; Distilled water 20 l; Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) 15 l; Sodium or magnesium sulphate (Na2SO4 or MgSO4); Equipment and...
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