Ephedrine Production Ways

Ephedrine Production Ways

Introduction

Ephedrine, a naturally occurring alkaloid, has a rich history deeply entwined with traditional medicine and modern pharmacology. Ephedrine was first isolated in 1885 and came into commercial use in 1926. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is available as a generic medication. Derived from plants like Ephedra sinica, this compound has found applications ranging from decongestants to weight loss aids.

Ephedrine Hydrochloride

Ephedrine Synthesis From Propiophenone

The synthesis of ephedrine from propiophenone involves a multistep process that transforms propiophenone, a ketone compound, into ephedrine, a sympathomimetic amine commonly used in medicine and methamphetamine production.

One common approach to the synthesis of ephedrine from propiophenone involves several key steps, such as the bromination of propiophenone to form 1-bromopropiophenone (pic. 1), followed by nucleophilic substitution to convert the bromoketone into methcathinone (pic. 2). Then, methcathinone is deduced into ephedrine free base (pic. 3). Throughout the process, careful control of reaction conditions and the use of specific reagents are important to achieve high yields.

Read complete Ephedrine Synthesis From Propiophenone tutorial here.

Ephedrine synthesis From 1-Phenyl-1,2-propandion

Alternative way is Ephedrine synthesis from 1-Phenyl-1,2-propandion by means of catalytic reduction with hydrogen gas and Adams' catalyst. 1-Phenyl-1,2-propandion Can be purchased in international chemical market, other reagents are not so hard to buy. This is a one-pot reaction that uses gentle exposure to hydrogen gas. Pay attention to safety measures.

Read complete Ephedrine Synthesis From Propiophenone tutorial here.

Ephedrine synthesis from L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC)

L-Ephedrine is obtained from dried plants of various species of the genus Ephedra by initial treatment with alkali, followed by extraction with organic solvent. Extraction, purification and isolation of these drugs is time-consuming, costly and complicated by the presence of undesired byproducts. L-Phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC; (1)) which is a precursor for ephedrine is produced by biotransformation of benzaldehyde using yeast cultures. The chemical conversion of L-PAC to ephedrine has proved to be more advantageous than the extraction route. L-PAC could be converted by a chemical reductive amination with methylamine to optically pure L-ephedrine. The use of microwave irradiation for chemical synthesis is of increasing importance, since it provides a simple alternative to classical chemical routes with rapid reactions yielding high conversion and selectivity. A two-step simple synthetic reaction was carried out in a homogeneous reaction medium under exposure to microwaves. A homogeneous reaction medium ensures better thermal homogeneity under microwave heating and facilitates scale-up of the reaction. The procedure is superior to methods involving complex hydrogenation procedures and those involving reduction of protected cyanohydrins.

Read complete Ephedrine synthesis from L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) tutorial here.

Ephedrine extraction from plants

Ephedrine was found in the Chinese "Ma-huang" or Ephedra sinica Stapf plant, made from various species of ephedra, by Nagai in 1887. It has two chiral centers so that four configurationally isomeric ephedrines exist. The two naturally occurring ephedrines differ in the configuration of the secondary alcohol group.

There are two methods of Ephedrine extraction. First one was taken from German patent and allow getting Ephedrine hydrochloride with high purity grade. This method is suitable for laboratory manufacturing more than for kitchen home lab. Second one is simple extraction method with ethanol and naphtha, which give quite dirty free base of ephedrine. Nevertheless, simple method may be carried out at home garage and product may be purified with recrystallization as in first method.

"Ma-huang" or Ephedra sinica Stapf plant

Both ephedrine extraction from plants are clearly described here.

Ephedrine Extraction From Pills

Finally, there are several approaches of ephedrine extraction from OTC pills. You can meet them in Ephedrine Extraction From Pills and Methamphetamine From Ephedrine Tablets complete tutorials.

  1. GhostChemist

    Synthesis of Ephedrine Hydrochloride and Chemical Analysis

    The synthesis of Ephedrine hydrochloride is proceeding according to Scheme 1. Scheme 1 Were carried out 3 synthesis of Ephedrine with 1, 1.5 and 2 equivalents of NaBH4 to methcathinone Starting reagents and materials for a one synthesis: 10 g of purified methcathinone hydrochloride 40-50 mL...
  2. S

    how much would people pay for a gram of pseudoephedrine?

    Question 
    How much would people be willing to pay for a gram of pseudoephedrine extracted from pills? I plan to sell here in the future once I learn about chemistry.
  3. T0lek511

    Ephedra sinica herb

    Looking for a vendor 
    Hi I want to buy ephedra sinica herb for weight loss.
  4. M

    Potential with phenylephrine to methamphetamine?

    Could this be used in place of ephedrine since the latter is no longer OTC (and if it is, obtaining requires a license, unless you make it). Phenylephrine is a nasal decongestant with the chemical formula C9H13NO2. It's formula looks like this: Is there any potential for this, or is it too...
  5. J

    Extraction from Ephedrine pills

    Question 
    Hello, I'm a beginner chemist and want to cook my first batch soon while using the "Ephedrine extraction method". I'm wondering, which Ephedrine pills should I use and where I can get them. Should I use Ephedrine HCI/L? Or Ephedrinium Hydrochlorid? And if it is the latter which one(D6/D4/etc.)...
  6. C

    Need a little help with something

    Question 
    Hey guys, since in my country I can buy only one medicine without a prescription that contains pseudoephedrine, it contains also ibuprofen. Is there a way to separate pseudoephedrine from ibuprofen?
  7. R

    Biosynth: Homebrewing Ephedrine at home

    Hallo I found this tutorial on the web. it is relatively old and new procedures may be developed. it is the production of ephedrine from yeast. via L-pac reduced methilamine to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. is there anyone who did this? possibly someone would develop TEK how to do at home...
  8. G.Patton

    Ephedrine extraction from pills methods

    Introduction It is totally OTC and uses activated carbon as a cleaning aide while exploiting characteristics of VM&P naphtha. Average yield is 60 % of very clean free base. Definitions In this write-up will be used the phrase "for every box of pills used". This stands for every box of 48 x 60...
  9. G.Patton

    L-Ephedrine synthesis from L-phenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC)

    Introduction L-Ephedrine is obtained from dried plants of various species of the genus Ephedra by initial treatment with alkali, followed by extraction with organic solvent. Extraction, purification and isolation of these drugs is time-consuming, costly and complicated by the presence of...
  10. brianvene1

    Alphastoff Technique Discussion - Methamphetamine from ephedrine pills (1g to 10g scale)

    „Alphastoff“ (translated from the original file)
  11. G.Patton

    dl-Ephedrine synthesis from 1-Phenyl-1,2-propandion

    Introduction Here is described synthesis method of dl-Ephedrine from 1-Phenyl-1,2-propandion by means of catalytic reduction with hydrogen gas and Adams' catalyst. 1-Phenyl-1,2-propandion Can be purchased in international chemical market, other reagents are not so hard to buy. This is a one-pot...
  12. MethSpawner

    Recommend a method for first time METH synthesis,got all em reagents!

    Greetings fellow hiveminds! I will be starting my journey to meth cooking soon.I got access to most of the needed reagents like ephedrine,pseudo, red p,methylamine and p2p.Issue is I got little to no chemical knowledge and this will be my first synthesis.Do you guys think this is doable for...
  13. G.Patton

    Ephedrine extraction from plants

    Introduction Ephedrine was found in the Chinese "Ma-huang" or Ephedra sinica Stapf plant, made from various species of ephedra, by Nagai in 1887. It has two chiral centers so that four configurationally isomeric ephedrines exist. The two naturally occurring ephedrines differ in the configuration...
  14. William D.

    Methamphetamine from ephedrine tablets

    Extraction of pseudoephedrine from pharmaceutical (Sudafed) tablets. Pseudoephedrine was extracted from Sudafed tablets using ethanol, ethanol/methanol (90:10% vol/vol) and methylated spirits. The solvents were chosen with reference to the relevant clandestine literature. For each extraction...
  15. HIGGS BOSSON

    Synthesis of ephedrine from propiophenone

    THEORY OF SYNTHESIS OF EPHEDRINE. The mechanism of these reactions is well known: - at the first stage, bromine is attached to propiophenone in benzene, alpha-bromine-propiophenone is obtained; - at the second stage, bromine is replaced by an amino group, cathinone is obtained (if ammonia is...
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